company that sells Internet connectivity. Examples are MTNL, VSNL, Satyam
measure of the information-carrying capacity of a transmission medium. For
digital devices, bandwidth refers to the amount of data that can be
transmitted in a certain period of time. The larger the bandwidth, the
greater is the amount of information that can move through a network.
Nasscom’s Operation Bandwidth has drawn attention to India’s
bandwidth-related problems. According to Nasscom-McKinsey Report 1999, India
will require a bandwidth of 300GB by 2005. India’s current international
bandwidth is estimated at 325Mbps.
large transmission line that carries data gathered from smaller
interconnected lines. India does not have an Internet backbone. DoT has
plans to set up the National Internet Backbone to cover 549 stations across
type of data transmission in which a single medium-wire is used to carry
multiple channels simultaneously. Examples are cable TV and DSL technology.
occurs when one part of the network is used for different data transmissions
at the same time. A collision results in a garbled message. There are
collision detection techniques that can ensure proper transmission of your
to a program’s or device’s ability to link with other programs and
outward-bound traffic from a Web site, with the exception of e-mail. This
includes HTML, graphic, audio or video content accessed by someone viewing
subscriber line (DSL)–DSL connects the PC to the telephone exchange using
the same copper lines as the normal telephone connection. Attaching a DSL
modem to this connection will enable you to have a 24-hour online connection
to the Internet. Your telephone line is free for simultaneous communication.
In India, DSL accounts cost up to Rs 30,000, including modem and
services digital network (ISDN)–A communication protocol offered by
telephone companies to carry data, video and voice traffic. ISDN allows you
to send digital information at speeds up to 128Kbps over the normal
telephone network. MTNL and VSNL offer ISDN services in India.
permanent telephone connection between two points. A leased line is always
active. In India, leased lines are popular in the corporate sector, although
getting a leased line can take about 45 days.
term is used to specify the speed of fiber optic networks conforming to the
SONET standard. A few examples are OC-1, OC-3 and OC-48, which are
equivalent to 51.9Mbps, 155.5Mbps and 2.5Gbps, respectively.
thin strand of glass wire capable of transmitting large amounts of
information in seconds. Information is transmitted through the optical fiber
in the form of light. In fiber, data can travel at 60% of the speed of light–that
means 179,876 kilometers per second. In India, various companies are into
the business related
to optical fiber, notable among them being Spectranet, Hughes Tele.com,
Reliance and Enron.
Synchronous Optical Network, SONET is a standard for connecting fiber-optic
transmission systems. The international equivalent term is SDH.
broadcasting of sound and video over an Intranet or Internet in real time.
This is a bandwidth intensive application and is yet to make waves in India.